Sooner or later we’ve all gotten familiar with scams. Wikivoyage articles include a helpful section on common tourist scams and YouTube is full of videos exposing Windows support scam callers. The silver lining is that most scams involve only a single victim. We all know the feeling of having overpaid…


Two chess knights opposing each other (black and white)
Photo by Hassan Pasha on Unsplash

As long as there have been humans, people have come together. They have formed families, tribes, alliances, city-states, nations, and empires. Often, these communities had to defend themselves against outside enemies and external threats. …


Dmitry Shamis on Unsplash

War is costly. While outright wars between nations for economic gain are becoming less common, most nations retain a sizeable army “just in case”. We often forget that even in times of peace, war has its costs that everyone in society has to bear. …


The United Nations are a divisive topic. Some see it as the culmination of humanity and progress, while for others it is an all-powerful cabal, out to destroy traditional values or an ineffective talking shop for detached politicians.

Photo by Jonathan Moy de Vitry on Unsplash

The UN is undoubtedly important to international diplomacy. It has mediated countless…


Over a century ago, Bertha von Suttner was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize “for her audacity to oppose the horrors of war”. As one of the most vocal and inspiring representatives of the anti-war and pacifist movement, her ideas have laid the groundwork for contemporary world federalist thought.

Record sleeve of Lay Down Your Arms (Bell Records)

I personally…


Lonely island in Micronesia
Photo by Marek Okon on Unsplash

What is Toki Pona?

Toki Pona is a minimalist language, designed by Canadian linguist Sonja Lang to help simplify one’s thoughts. It is based on the idea that a small grammar and vocabulary is more than enough for simple communication. Imagine you are stranded on an island with a Babel-esque group of survivors —…


Critics of world federalism often assert that powerful nations such as the United States, China, or Russia, would never concede their absolute sovereignty to a world federation, rendering any attempts to limit their national independence futile right from the start. …


originally written for the Young World Federalists and Massachusetts Peace Action

Sign marking the location of a nuclear fallout shelter
Photo by Burgess Milner on Unsplash

A child born today could have worse-than-even odds of experiencing a nuclear war. This back-of-the-envelope estimate by Martin Hellmann flies in the face of the decreased public attention to nuclear armament and proliferation and should give us pause to…

Lukas Pfluger

I write sporadic essays about open society, world federalism, Europe, languages, and whatever else I find interesting.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store